Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are entirely missing from Gregg; there is absolutely no sound for “c” besides those currently represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you can find common phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a mixture of letters into the Roman alphabet, but can each be written having a letter that is single Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six complex symbols strung as well as seven quick ligatures, is rendered with two quick shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even more, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to get at the nugget that is phonetic of word: “bed” is written as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another ten percent of this note-taker’s time.
Nevertheless the impact that is biggest from Gregg shorthand arises from its systematic way of abbreviation. By way of example, virtually every page in Gregg, compiled by it self, represents a typical term. Most are utilized for several words that are different with respect to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can mean “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it” or “at.” This way, almost 100 of the very most typical terms in English is rendered in a stroke that is single. Likewise, most typical English terms have actually a spelling that is abbreviated of or two shots. The Gregg version that is elegant of,” for example, is brief for “bring” and it is written in an immediate. Right Here it really is once more:
And, since 60 per cent of spoken English is composed of about 600 of the typical terms, brief forms play a role that is huge quickening Gregg. “Brief type” is obviously a term that is technical Gregg. Everyone can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and probably increase their composing speed; but to be certainly fast—like the rest of the a small number of Gregg-powered court reporters when you look at the federal courts whom remove testimony at significantly more than 200 terms per minute—you need to memorize dozens or a huge selection of typical abbreviations.
That sounds difficult unless you understand that your face is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, almost all of that you simply discovered organically while you required them. Gregg isn’t any various. And also the Gregg variations have reached minimum more systematic, so they accrue quickly.
However the form that is brief significantly more than a easy abbreviation, it is the distillation regarding the fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose significantly more than is important to know it later on. By using this concept, huge number of long, Latinate terms are reduced to three or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief forms had been specially crucial in the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been also epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One approach that is especially fertile abbreviation in Gregg could be the utilization of solitary letters as stand-ins for typical prefixes or suffixes, according to whether they’re written before or following the words they modify. As prefixes, these letters may be either attached with or detached through the term. As an example, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally as with “grandiloquent,” and even “granular” (that could be written “g” above “l-r.”)
Having said that, an attached “k” at the start of a term could be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” therefore “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and it is the brief type for Congress. But a detached “k” written above a term may be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written more than a “b”, for instance, is read “contrib” and it is the brief type for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much equivalent with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the termination of a term is short for “gram,” as in “program.” A detached “k” is short for “ical,” as in “medical.” And a“o” that is detached the area of “ology,” as with “biology.”
These types also can together be added https://eliteessaywriters.com/blog/psychology-research-paper-topics to produce longer terms.
“Biological” is created “b-i” accompanied by a detached “o-k.” This way, very long, complex terms are paid off to 2 or 3 fast flicks regarding the pen, yet stay entirely legible to anybody who understands the Gregg system. Combined, the brief types and the abbreviation concept account fully for about 50 % of Gregg’s advantage over longhand. Not just will be the letters uncomplicated and simply joined up with, you will find less of those to create.
The last element that makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” Like this, numerous typical expressions can be dashed down in some shots without ever raising the pen through the web page. As an example, the expression “it will be” consists of three typical terms, every one of which may be written individually with an individual letter: “i,” written with a quick, right, upward swing that slopes to your right, represents “it;” “l,” an extended, horizontal, upward-facing bend, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be.” Phrasing lets you join all three among these letters within one elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Here is “it will likely to be” in the line that is first with “we have actually been” below it:
And you will find literally tens of thousands of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Above all, unlike brief kinds, they don’t need memorization that is much they’re the merchandise of some easy guidelines.
By the time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from their head office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into nearly every college, business and courthouse in the united kingdom. As he had been fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, research guides, publications, and shorthand variations of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a nationwide infrastructure of official certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the relevant skills of all of the professional shorthand authors. You needed a certificate from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 words per minute if you wanted to be an executive secretary. If you desired to be a court reporter, you needed to show you can compose an astonishing 225 terms each minute with much better than 98 % precision. Entirely, thousands of people passed away through Gregg training while the Gregg official certification system.
For almost a hundred years, Gregg had been a part that is essential of culture. Since recently as the 1970s, virtually every twelfth grade in the united states taught Gregg. Truly, every company school & most universities offered Gregg-certified shorthand courses. But Gregg’s decrease started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, right after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices when you look at the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though there are a small number of “pen article writers” into the federal court system). The Dictaphone as well as other recording products made verbatim note using less and less crucial in any office. Plus some individuals state improvements in women’s rights additionally played a job within the decrease of Gregg. The smartest, most talented women often ended up as secretaries or executive assistants and became gifted shorthand practitioners in a time when they were denied careers in fields like the law or medicine. Into the 1960s and 1970s, as they ladies begun to proceed to better opportunities, those put aside never ever became quite because fast or skilled during the complexities of Gregg.
The death that is real for Gregg, though, ended up being the arrival of this computer within the 1980s. Also executives that are high-level much longer dictated letters for their secretaries; they published them on the own to their desktop computers. Businesses which used to possess ratings of skilled shorthand authors eliminated their pools that are steno. Today, i am maybe perhaps not conscious of any school that is high teaches Gregg. It is extremely difficult to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community universities in nyc, where Gregg writers remain prized by some glove that is white businesses. The book that is only posted by the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill could be the Gregg handbook, an workplace guide which contains no reference to shorthand.
But, being a technology for composing fast with pen and paper—still a skill that is fundamental reporters like me—Gregg shorthand hasn’t been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase an old Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even though you simply discover the essentials, Gregg will most likely increase your note speed that is taking. A minute or more with practice and daily use, it’s not uncommon to reach speeds of 100 words. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the complement that is perfect the twenty-first Century technology for the smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. Despite the fact that, for quick stretches, i will write 120 terms each minute, the American that is average now at a lot more than 150 terms a moment, therefore one thing is inevitably lost within the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need to worry. More often than not, whenever I bypass to writing the tale, I’m able to count on my notes that are handwritten brief quotes and history information. Nevertheless when we need a lengthier, verbatim quote, i could make use of my records as a type of index to obtain the right an element of the interview, and touch there with my pen to know the playback. You can forget associated with dance that is forward/reverse a electronic recorder when it is time to transcribe. It is an almost perfect system.